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Up to now (27/02/2012), most of the main astronomical centers in Brazil is involved with the realization of the 6th IOAA. They are listed below, ordered by foundation date.

The National Observatory (ON) was created in 1827 by the Emperor Pedro II as the Imperial Observatory of Rio de Janeiro, and it still works on that city. Home of the first telescopes installed here. ON works in three main areas: astrophysics, geophysics and time measurement (it is responsible for the brazilian legal time). Today it has 63 researches.
The Valongo Observatory (OV-UFRJ) is part of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. It was created in 1881 as the observatory of the old Polytechnic School of Rio de Janeiro. Around 1930, the school was united with the city’s medical school and law school to form the university, and the observatory became a separated department within it. Since 1958 and until recent years, OV was responsible for the only astronomy undergraduate course in Brazil (many astronomers were formed in physics undergrads).
The National Laboratory of Astrophysics (LNA) is located at the town of Itajubá, Minas Gerais. It was founded in 1985 to administrate the only observatory with professional operation in the brazilian territory: the Observatory of Pico dos Dias (OPD), in the neighbor municipality of Brasópolis. LNA also became the institution responsible for the international consortia of telescopes in which Brazil participates, like the Southern Astrophysical Observatory (SOAR) and the Gemini Observatory, both located in Chile.
The National Institute of Space Research (INPE), in São José dos Campos, São Paulo, was founded in 1968 as part of the beginning of the Brazilian Space Program. It’s research focus is less on theoretical astronomy and more on astronautics and space exploration. But it’s also important for basic research because it produces space instruments that are useful (for example, stratospheric balloons for CMB measurements).
The Rio Planetarium is the biggest among the 30 planetaria around the country. Spanning in an area of 16 000 sq mts, in two sites and three domes (the biggest one with 23 m of diameter), it hosts many programs in astronomy education, diffusion and research. It will host the 6th IOAA Opening Ceremony.
The Brazilian Astronomical Society (SAB), founded in 1974, is the official organ for the astronomical research in Brazil, filiated along the International Astroomical Union.
The Museum of Astronomy and Affine Sciences (MAST) was formally created in 1985, heriting the historical buildings and instruments from the National Observatory. Today, it is a strong pole for astronomy education, museology and history of science. It will host the 6th IOAA Closing Ceremony.
The Brazilian Space Agency (AEB), founded in 1994 as part of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Inovation, is for the Brazilian space program, including responsible satellites, rockets, launch sites and international cooperation.
The Brazilian Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics (OBA), organized by both Brazilian Astronomical Society and Brazilian Space Agency, is held annually since 1998. Next to its 15th birthday, the olympiad have around 500 000 students/year, from all school levels. Besides that, it focuses heavily on basic education and teacher training.
  The CCD is a group of ex-participants of brazilian and international astronomy olympiads. Founded in 2004 to taking care of the international team’s selection and training, it now organizes an annual astronomy school camp and a half-year distance course, along with astromomy education research and production of materials.
The NGC-51 group, bounded to the "Espaço Ciência Viva" (Live Science Museum), exists for more than ten years gathering professional and amateur astronomers in the perfect"carioca spirit". Their telescopes (built by their own hands,including the optics) are used not only for observing sessions at the museum but also in public areas like events, schools and malls. They have weekly meetings at the museum on Wednesdays, 19h00, no matter the weather conditions of that day.